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What is resource leveling on a project?

Resource leveling on a project is the act of adjusting the start and/or end dates of an initiative based on resource constraints. As PMBOK explains, "resource leveling can be used when shared or critically required resources are available only at certain times or in limited quantities, or are over-allocated.” 

For instance, your project may require a designer to develop specs for a client. However, you’ve come to find that there are conflicts and all the designers in your organization are occupied and working on different projects. Resource leveling would involve adjusting the start or end dates of a project so that shared resources can be made available.