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プロジェクトポートフォリオ管理 (PPM) とは何でしょうか?

プロジェクトポートフォリオ管理 (PPM) は、組織におけるプロジェクトの集中管理方法です。プロジェクトには相互関係を持つものと持たないものがありますが、競合するリソースの監督と管理のためにこれらをポートフォリオという名称で一括管理します。プロジェクト管理におけるポートフォリオ管理にはプロジェクトの取り込みプロセスも含まれます。これには、潜在的なプロジェクトの特定、およびそれらのプロジェクトの認定、プロジェクトマネージャの指名、そしてプロジェクトをポートフォリオ全体に組み込むことなどが含まれます。また実行中のプロジェクトが事業の全体的な目標および戦略に直接結びついていることを確認するために、プロジェクトのハイレベルの管理や監督も含まれます。

プロジェクトポートフォリオ管理が重要な理由

プロジェクトマネジメント協会は、ポートフォリオ管理が戦略と実行間のギャップを埋めるひとつの方法であることがリサーチで示されたことを説明しています。言い換えれば、会社の投資効果を最大化するために適切なプロジェクトが適切なタイミングで実行されていることを確認するのはポートフォリオマネージャーの仕事なのです。これは多くのプロジェクトを抱える組織にとっては特に重要です。プロジェクトについてのアイデアはあらゆる場所からあらゆるタイミングで生まれてくるため、完了させるべきプロジェクトのリストが長くなるのはよくあることです。しかし、そのすべてを実行するには時間、資金、またはリソースが不足します。そのプロジェクトが会社にとって最大のメリットをもたらすかを判断し、それに従ってプロジェクトの優先順位をつける上で、ポートフォリオ管理が必要となります。

プロジェクトポートフォリオ管理の主なメリットとしては以下が挙げられます。

  1. 会社の目標とプロジェクトを整合する
  2. プロジェクトの計画立案から個人的な偏見を排除し、「ペット」プロジェクトがないことを確認する
  3. プロジェクトの競合についての意思決定を容易にする
  4. プロジェクト管理部局、またはポートフォリオマネージャがビジネスの優先事項と一致しないプロジェクトを却下する際に役立つ
  5. 長い目で全体像に目を向けることの重要性を強調する
  6. プロジェクト管理における統治と監督を構築する

プロジェクトポートフォリオ管理における5つのステップ

プロジェクト管理におけるポートフォリオ管理には、5つの重要なステップがあります。

1. 指針となる事業上の目標を特定する

食料品店で働いている場合、最も新鮮な食品の供給、最も幅広い選択肢の提供、最も安い価格での提供のうち、どれが目標になりますか。最も安い価格の提供が最優先の場合、コスト節減を推進するプロジェクトは、食品の品質を向上するプロジェクトよりもはるかに重要となります。

2. 要望とアイデアを把握し調査する

プロジェクトに関するアイデアは、あらゆる場所からあらゆるタイミングで生まれます。ここで重要なことは、これらのアイデアを追跡し評価できるように、アイディアの正式な採用プロセスを構築することです。ポートフォリオマネージャが管理するスプレッドシートのようにシンプルなものから、社内の誰もが思いついたときにアイデアを投稿できるオンラインデータベースのようなものもあります。

3. 最善のプロジェクトを選択する

アイデアを把握したら、ポートフォリオマネージャは、前進させるプロジェクトを評価し選択するための標準的なプロセスを確認します。このプロセスでは、プロジェクトが会社の目標に沿っていることを確認するだけではなく、以下のような事項についても検討する必要があります。

  • プロジェクトにかかるコスト
  • プロジェクトにかかる期間
  • プロジェクトで得られるもの (得られるメリット)
  • リソース確保の可能性
  • プロジェクトに伴うリスク

意思決定は複数のプロジェクトに対して同時に行われるため、以上を検討することは容易ではありません。プロセスをシンプルにして偏見を取り除くための一般的な方法としては、ランク付け基準としてよく使われる投資収益率 (ROI) などをはじめ、各プロジェクトを測定し点数を付けるための簡単な基準リストを作成することです。

4. ポートフォリオの実現可能性を検証し、プロジェクトを開始する

どのプロジェクトを実行するかが決定したら、ポートフォリオ全体についての検証が必要です。この際には選定されたプロジェクトの組み合わせが大きすぎたり、リスクが過大になったり、費用が超過したりせず、相互の依存関係が深すぎないようにします。ポートフォリオは、適切にバランスがとれ、ビジネスの目標に沿っていなければなりません。たとえば、3つあるプロジェクトの試験がすべて1月に計画されており、テスト施設が1ヵ所しかない場合には、問題となります。2つのプロジェクトが相互関連しており、一方の遅延がもう一方にも影響を与える場合、同時開始を再検討しなければならない場合もあります。ポートフォリオの検証が終了次第プロジェクトマネージャを指名して、プロジェクトを開始できます。

5. ポートフォリオを管理し監督する

プロジェクトは時間と共に変化し、進化しており、今後のプロジェクトのリストに新たなアイデアが追加されることもあります。進行中のポートフォリオの推進と取り込みのプロセスを継続的に管理していくことが重要です。ポートフォリオの管理と監督には、以下が含まれます。

  • プロジェクトマネージャと協力して、プロジェクトのパフォーマンスを監視する
  • プロジェクト間の競合を特定し、問題を解決する
  • プロジェクトの保留、取り消し、新たなプロジェクトの追加など、必要に応じてポートフォリオを修正する
  • プロジェクトが、引き続きビジネス目標に沿っていることを確認する



Why project portfolio management is important

According to the Project Management Institute, "portfolio management is a way to bridge the gap between strategy and implementation." The portfolio manager's job is to ensure the right projects are being done at the right time to maximize the company's investment. This is particularly important in an organization with a lot of internal projects.

Ideas for projects can come from anywhere, at any time, and it's common for a business to have a long list of potential projects to complete. However, there usually is not enough time, money, or resources to do them all right away. Project portfolio management is necessary to understand which projects will have the largest beneficial impact on the company and prioritize them accordingly.

What types of industries and companies benefit from project portfolio management?

According to research by PM Solutions, 71% of companies have a project portfolio management system. PPM’s growth is evident in the rising number of companies adopting project portfolio management solutions.

However, what kind of companies can benefit from PPM? Project portfolio management is a must-have for any company that has several projects going on simultaneously, such as:

IT

Information technology teams are typically smaller with highly specialized talent and bigger budgets. Resource profiling can be done to update skills inventory and appropriately meet peak demand periods. Use data-driven forecasting to assign the team to value-creating projects. Meet project demands successfully without under or over-burdening the team.

Construction

Often, companies lose focus on their overall goals in the chaos of managing more minor details. For example, large construction projects can take months and even years to complete. Many things may change during that time.

Decreasing project finances, ever-changing stakeholder needs, or the exit of key project personnel can quickly change project dynamics. However, project portfolio management helps keep the focus on the big picture and supports the construction team to keep moving toward its goals.

Financial services

Accuracy is the bedrock of financial services companies such as credit unions, banks, and credit card firms that process payments and manage money. Employing portfolio project management solutions helps companies set up performance thresholds, adapt to changing trends, and gather real-time metrics to meet project objectives.

Project management teams

According to Wellingtone’s State of Project Management report, only 29% of companies complete projects on time. Using project portfolio solutions can be an effective method for minimizing unforeseen delays, mitigating risks, and sequencing projects for maximum success. As a result, stakeholders get more visibility into project prioritization and can understand project value better.

Professional services teams

Professional services teams have different needs based on their size. Smaller companies tend to have fewer projects with smaller budgets, while the larger companies have multiple projects running simultaneously. With a standardized system of workflows and realistic budget estimates, teams can complete their projects faster while minimizing project risks.

Marketing teams

Marketing teams have multiple projects with greatly varying needs. For example, one project may focus on tapping into a new region, while another may be involved in gaining market share in an online marketplace. Marketing teams need to prioritize initiatives that move the overall business goals forward instead of an individual project.

Benefits of project portfolio management

By leveraging the benefits of project portfolio management, companies can plan out all the pieces of their project to get the best results. The main advantages of project portfolio management are:

Provides alignment between company objectives and projects

A PMI survey found that a lack of clearly defined goals is the first reason for project failure. Project portfolio management promotes transparent and open discussions amongst the team with a company-first attitude.

Takes the personal bias out of project planning

With PPM, there are no “pet projects.” Subjectivity in project planning is eliminated as PPM focuses on prioritizing projects based on their inherent risk, business goals, resource, and skill availability. Multiple qualitative and quantitative techniques such as ranking models and scoring methods are used to make project decisions.

Makes decision-making easier

Stakeholders may struggle to manage disputes that can arise with different project teams focusing on their priorities and vying for limited resources. By employing a standardized approach to decision-making, PPM subjectively evaluates the demand from competing project teams.

Helps prioritize projects

Good project portfolio managers focus their limited resources on their most valuable projects. When customer requests, regulatory requirements, or strategy demands arise, teams use project portfolio management to work on viable projects that help achieve organizational goals.

Focuses on the big picture

Sometimes project teams concentrate so much on execution that they miss the big picture. While chasing trends, they fail to achieve strategic goals and overwork their teams. When teams adopt project portfolio management, they prioritize and execute only value-delivering projects.

Builds governance and oversight into project management

Project portfolio management builds a natural governance model for all the projects of an organization. While project management looks at a single project, PPM provides a holistic overview of all projects. Project managers can create a contingency plan, employ data-driven techniques, and lead the company on the right path.

The five steps of project portfolio management

There are five main steps to the project portfolio management process in project management.

1. Identify the guiding objectives of the business

If you work for a grocery store, is their goal to provide the freshest food, the largest selection, or the lowest prices? If the lowest prices are the priority, then projects to promote cost savings are much more important than projects to improve the food's quality.

2. Capture and research requests and ideas

Project ideas could come from anywhere at any time. It's important to have a formalized intake process to capture these ideas so they can be tracked and evaluated. This may be as simple as a spreadsheet maintained by the portfolio manager, or it could be an online database where anyone in the company can enter ideas as they think of them.

3. Select the best projects

Once ideas are captured, portfolio managers must go through a standard process to evaluate and select the projects that will move forward. This requires more than just ensuring they are aligned with the company objectives, such as:

  • How much will it cost?
  • How long will it take?
  • What is the return on this project? (What benefit will it provide?)
  • Are the resources available?
  • What are the risks associated with this project?

Since decisions are being made on multiple projects at once, this can become even more complex. A common way to simplify the project portfolio management process, and remove any bias, is to create a simple list of criteria that each project is measured and scored against, such as return on investment (ROI), which is a common ranking factor.

4. Validate portfolio feasibility and initiate projects

Once a determination has been made on which projects to move forward, it's important to validate the portfolio as a whole. This can include making sure the mix of projects chosen isn't too large, too risky, too expensive, or too interdependent. The portfolio should be properly balanced and aligned with business goals. For example, if three of your projects forecast testing in January, and you only have one test lab, this is an issue. Also, if two projects are interrelated and a delay in one will push out the other, you may want to reconsider starting them both simultaneously. Once the portfolio is validated, project managers can be assigned and the projects initiated.

5. Manage and monitor the portfolio

Projects change and evolve over time, and new ideas may be added to the list of potential projects. This is why it's important to continually manage both the ongoing portfolio execution and the intake process. Managing and monitoring the portfolio may include the following:

  • Working with project managers to monitor the performance of projects
  • Identifying and resolving conflicts between projects
  • Making changes to the portfolio as needed, including putting projects on hold, canceling projects, and adding in new projects
  • Ensuring projects are still aligned with the business objectives

Best tools for project portfolio management

While project portfolio management (PPM) may sound simple, putting the PPM life cycle into action can be challenging. Along with a continuous project planning and evaluation process, you will need the right tools to keep all projects moving forward. Here are some widely used tools for project portfolio management:

Decision tree analysis

Decision tree analysis is a great tool for evaluating situations with multiple subjective factors. It illustrates the multiple ways to solve a problem along with their costs, outcomes, and consequences. Use this method to evaluate project outcomes, identify opportunities, manage costs, and solve problems. 

Cost-benefit analysis

A cost-benefit analysis is a quantitative method for assessing the risk and reward of a project. Project success occurs when probable benefits are more and the overall cost is lesser.

Objectives matrix 

In this method, the overall business strategy is divided into multiple objectives. These smaller objectives are assigned to different projects and scored for evaluation.

Scoring model 

Appraising a project using the scoring model is a good way to balance the quantitative and qualitative factors. Some qualitative factors can be market competitiveness, business value, and customer confidence, while qualitative factors include operational cost, revenue value, and return on investment.

Weights and scores are assigned to these factors, and every project gets a total score. It provides a rational way of comparing projects based on their overall scores.

Why choose Wrike as your project portfolio management solution?

With multiple projects on the go, it’s important to know your team is focusing on the right projects at the right time. You need to combine project management with project portfolio management.

Create business value by focusing on strategic projects to deliver high-impact work. With Wrike, your teams can automate incoming requests, review team workloads, and address bottlenecks before they occur.

Start a free Wrike trial to reduce over-allocation of resources, minimize disruptions, and achieve project portfolio success.

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